Extrability is what it says, an additional ability that develops in a person with a disability because of adaptation to life with limited health.
Features of these abilities are that they are not developed in the life of an ordinary person, but on the other hand, thanks to extrability, the life of a person with disabilities can be changed qualitatively. Extrability is unique abilities and skills that can act as a competitive advantage for people with disabilities. The use and development of extrability in professional activities allows people with disabilities to occupy a competitive niche in the open labour market.
Another difference of extrability is that their development is based on self-esteem, mutual respect and the value of experience in overcoming crisis situations. Persons with disabilities who actualized such abilities survived a deep psychological crisis and came out of it winners. Many of them say that they have accepted their new life and destiny with gratitude. And this allowed them to accept the resources hidden in them.
Earlier, extrability was attributed to compensatory abilities. However, the concept of compensatory abilities suggests that a person has violations that he compensates for. Focus on the compensatory abilities of a person with a disability presuppose that such a person is sick. The concept of extrability is based on the idea that a person has physical changes that lead to psychological, social and cultural changes. Moreover, people with such extrabilities say that without disability, they could not achieve such results.
Types of extrability
Extrability and disability
The structure of the word “disability” indicates a negative meaning associated with this concept: “dis”- is a negative prefix. So, the concept of disability is associated with the idea of the lack of abilities, opportunities. In turn, the notion of extrability is opposite in its meaning. Extrability is a positive assessment of adaptation skills that people with disabilities develop thanks to their disability. Extrability develops only in the social context, it has social and economic value. Extrability is the abilities that people with disabilities use in their daily lives.
Extrability is shown abilities and talents that were not active, were not in demand until disability. Every person has an opportunity to develop abilities of the highest level “Extrability”.
Extrability of representatives of different categories of disability
Representatives of all disability groups are characterized by the following extrability:
- Ability to ask with self-esteem.
Extrability of blind people:
- excellent memory;
- developed imagination;
- ability to generate non-standard solutions;
- developed analytical thinking;
- ability to competently operate with large amounts of information;
- ability to make decisions in conditions of lack of information;
- developed intuition;
- trust in the world;
- ability to rely on internal feedback;
- ability to inspire confidence in others;
- well supplied intonation;
- good computer skills.
Extrability of people moving in a wheelchair:
- ability to competently build logistics of events;
- ability to choose (find) its circle – they rarely find themselves in those places, where they feel uncomfortable;
- power skills are developed;
- skills of planning of actions at obstacles;
- search for creative and other abilities and skills;
- developed motor skills;
- they are subtle psychologists;
- they communicate quickly and well, better than a person without disabilities.
Extrability of people with mental features:
- communicative skills;
- sincere expression of creative talents;
Extrability of deaf people:
- developed skills of visual attention;
- strong communication within the community;
- internal attentiveness to the condition of the body;
- physical expressiveness;
- expressiveness of gestures;
- sensitivity to vibration;
- non-standard thinking;
- attention to details;
- developed fantasy through the expression of feelings;
- fields of view expand.
Examples of people with extrability
- Daniel Kish and other blind people who use echolocation skills when moving;
- Employees with mental features at the factory of juniper toys, furniture and household items;
- The listeners;
- kindergarten teachers with mental features (Israel);
- Roman Aranin and the head of organization Observer.
Application of extrability in professional activities
- Poets, writers;
- Assemblers in production;
- Piano tuners;
- Sound producers;
- Call-center operators;
- Guides at exhibitions;
- Trainers on business trainings in the dark;
- Presenters and organizers of sensory projects, such as: “Walk in the dark”, restaurants in the dark.
Extrability and inclusive interaction
Inclusive interaction this is an interaction of people with disabilities and representatives of others social groups aimed on creation of joint product which has a value for a wide range of social groups. Inclusive interaction involves the inclusion of all latent and explicit abilities of a person with disabilities in the process of creating a product.
How can we best understand that abilities of high level “extrability” are being used in an inclusive interaction? One of main criterion is the following. If we replace in the process of inclusive interaction of a person with a disability with a person without disability, then the quality of the product of the interaction should unrecognizably change, and the value should fall. Thus, we can understand that we really are using the unique abilities of a higher level in people with disabilities, in other words – Extrability.
One of the striking examples of professions, that organize the inclusive interaction is the profession of blind guides at exhibitions in the dark. If we replace a blind guide with a well-trained guide without a visual impairment, the quality of this service will be reduced.